A Weakness in the HEART?

A Weakness in the HEART?

In this month’s Journal Club Recap we take a look at some recently published literature about common heart related complaints in the ED. First, we look at the now nearly ubiquitously used HEART pathway. In a US population, do the benefits of decreased health care utilization sustain themselves to a year out of an index visit? Then we turn our attention to atrial fibrillation with RVR. Does the utility infielder of ED medications, Magnesium, actually help with more rapid rate control? And, should the results of a consensus panel sway us to treat A fib with RVR as an outpatient?

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Bug Juice Potpourri

Bug Juice Potpourri

In this month's Journal Club, we covered several articles that looked at the use of antibiotics in the Emergency Department.  Does adding Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole to Cephalexin increase the rates of clinical cure in uncomplicated cellulitis? For patients receiving Vancomycin in the ED, how many are appropriately dosed and how many receive a sufficient number of doses to hopefully limit the emergence of resistant bacteria?  Are patients receiving Vancomycin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam really at increased risk of acute kidney injury?

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The Last Gasp

The Last Gasp

It is undoubted that effective airway management is a critical link in the care of patients with both in-hospital cardiac arrest and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.  But how exactly should one manage the airway?  What results in the best outcomes for our patients? Should we be aiming to intubate every patient? Or, are extraglottic devices as effective (or more effective)? What about the good old bag-valve mask?  In our most recent Journal Club we explored the evidence surrounding airway management in cardiac arrest, covering 3 high impact articles.  We also touch on an abstract presented at the 2018 SAEM Academic Assembly which should add significantly to the body of literature when it is published in full.  Take a listen to our recap podcast below and/or read on for the summaries and links to the articles.

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Whole Blood - More than the Sum of Its Components?

Whole Blood - More than the Sum of Its Components?

Q: For a patient in hemorrhagic shock from acute blood loss, what is the best resuscitative fluid?  

A: If they've lost blood, give them blood.  

It's never quite that simple though right?  For a generation now, we have practiced primarily by transfusing patient's with acute blood loss varying ratios of blood product components.  Thanks to the PROPPR trial, we most recently arrived on a generally accepted ratio of 1:1:1 for Plasma, Platelets, and Red Blood Cells for severely injured bleeding trauma patients.  Recent military literature however, suggests that there may be another strategy (which is in and of itself a bit of a throwback) that could offer additional benefits over a component transfusion strategy.  If were are trying to recreate a whole blood with a 1:1:1 plasma:platetel:PRBC ratio, why not just give whole blood?

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A Pain in the Neck

A Pain in the Neck

There are some areas in our practice where the literature grants us a somewhat sure path forward in the evaluation of our patients.  The decision whether or not to pursue cervical spine imaging studies following a traumatic mechanism of injury is one of these areas.  The NEXUS criteria and Canadian C-Spine Rule are useful guides for the evaluation of these patients.  What comes after the imaging can be a bit more challenging.  What do we do with patients who have persistent pain but negative imaging? To what extent do we pursue the possibility of a ligamentous injury? Must we wait for all patients to be sober so that we can "clinically clear" them in addition to our radiographic clearance.   The 3 articles below seek to answer some of these challenging questions.  Take a listen to the podcast and read the summaries to familiarize yourself with some of the latest literature addressing these challenging patient care scenarios.

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The Future of Airway Management?

The Future of Airway Management?

What is the future of airway management in the ED?  How can we make our practice more effective and more efficient?  In this journal club recap, we focus on 2 topics emerging in the literature - flush rate O2 for pre-oxygenation and head of bed elevation during intubation.

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The Radioactive Heart

The Radioactive Heart

For Journal Club this past week we covered what is undoubtably one of the more controversial diagnostic tests used in the evaluation of patients presenting to physicians with chest pain.  The most recent NICE guidelines recommend Coronary CT as the first line test for patients with stable angina symptoms but don't Coronary CT's lead to increased downstream testing? more radiation exposure? To investigate this topic we took a look at 3 articles focused on the utility of Coronary CT scans. Take a listen to the podcast and read the recap to learn for yourself.

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A Significant Clot

A Significant Clot

Last week our Journal Club focused on the treatment of hemodynamically significant pulmonary emboli.  These are pulmonary emboli causing either frank hypotension (sometimes called massive or high risk PEs) or causing significant right heart strain as evidenced by CT findings, cardiac biomarker elevation, or bedside Echo findings.  Drs. Grace Lagasse, Kari Gorder, and Claire O'Brien led us in a discussion of the 3 papers linked in the article.  Read the papers yourself, listen to the podcast, read the summaries and get caught up on all things PE.

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Don't Kill the Beans: The Specter of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy

Don't Kill the Beans: The Specter of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy

Working in the Emergency Department, we often encounter patients with either pre-existing renal disease or an acute compromise of their renal function who also have a disease process necessitating a contrasted radiology study.  So what do we do with that patient with a creatinine of 1.8 who has a possible vascular dissection/traumatic injury/infection? What is the risk of contrast to that patient?  Should you compromise your diagnostic evaluation to avoid a harm to the patient's renal function?  Dr. Nick Ludmer, Dr Michael Miller, and Dr. Amanda Polsinelli recap 3 articles recently published looking into contrast induced nephropathy.  Take a listen to the podcast and read the blog post to get yourself acquainted with the current state of the literature.

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Vasopressin: A Second Class Pressor?

Vasopressin: A Second Class Pressor?

This week we'll be recapping the discussion of our most recent journal club where Dr. Christian Renne, Dr. Anita Goel, and Dr. Maika Dang led us in a discussion centering on the use of vasopressin both in sepsis and in vasoplegic shock states.  Take a listen to the podcast below and read the brief summaries of their articles to boost your understanding of Vasopressin.  Should you reach for it first or is it a second class pressor?

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Dealing with the Wheezes

Dealing with the Wheezes

Asthma and COPD are 2 of the more common ailments responsible for patients presenting to an Emergency Department with complaints of shortness of breath.  Last week, we met as a residency and, led by Dr. Lauren Titone, Dr. Walker Plash, and Dr. Rob Thompson, discussed some newer literature for the treatment of these often intertwined conditions.  Take a listen to the podcast within to hear our thoughts and read the summary after the jump for the breakdown.

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Anti-Arrhythmics - What Good Are They?

Anti-Arrhythmics - What Good Are They?

Last week we had our first Journal Club of the year and had an excellent discussion of the evidence surrounding the use of amiodarone, lidocaine, and procainamide for ventricular dysrhythmias.  Take a listen to the podcast below and read up on the details of the papers below that!

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Grand Rounds Recap 10/21

Grand Rounds Recap 10/21

Morbidity and Mortality Conference with Dr. Curry

Acute Coronary Syndrome in Pregnancy

Epidemiology

  • Incidence reported at about 6/100,000 deliveries
  • Maternal mortality is between 5-9%
  • 75% are STEMI
  • 2/3rds are anterior wall MI (LAD or LM as the culprit vessel)

Risk Factors

Many of these are typical ACS risk factors but are less prevalent in the pregnant population

  • Older age (>35 years old for pregnancy is considered older age....yikes)
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Dyslipidemia
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The Search for the Holy Grail: Assessment of Fluid Responsiveness

The Search for the Holy Grail: Assessment of Fluid Responsiveness

Last week our residents and faculty met for journal club in search of the holy grail.. err.. I mean, to talk about ways to assess volume responsiveness.  A couple of weeks back the PGY-1 and 2  residents met and discussed a number of questions they had about the care and management of patients with sepsis.  The discussion hit on a number of key topics: empiric antibiotic selection, timing of antibiotics, choice of vasopressors, etc.  Ultimately the group decided they wanted to take a closer look at non-invasive ways to assess volume responsiveness and guide resuscitation in septic patients.

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Procedural Sedation Cage Match

Procedural Sedation Cage Match

It's a typical busy post-Thanksgiving shift in the ED.  It seems like patients with acute decompensated heart failure, sepsis, NSTEMI's and a whole host of other ailments are tucked in every corner and crevice of the ED.  Just as you finish putting in orders on the last patient you saw, your next patient rolls by on an EMS stretcher.  You see from your computer that the patient is on a backboard and in a c-collar after what clearly was some form of traumatic event.  He's screaming in pain and holding his left leg flexed at the hip and internally rotated.  "Jeez, I bet that hip is dislocated," you say to yourself.

You know you're going to need to reduce this dislocation, to not do so would risk avascular necrosis.  Tammy, one of the nurses you are working with that day is already 2 steps ahead of you.  "Doc, we're getting everything set up for the sedation, you're going to need for that hip that's out. What drugs do you want us to pull up?"

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